Dinosaurs and penguins had/have a similar respiratory system.
“Modern-day birds have a highly specialised respiratory system, made up of a small rigid lung and around nine air sacs.
The bellows-like movement of the sternum and ribs moves air through the system.
Image: University of Manchester
The researchers examined fossils, including the famed ‘fighting dinosaurs’
Bony projections on the ribcage known as uncinate processes play an important role in both respiration and locomotion.
The small bones act as levers to move the ribs and sternum during breathing. They have become adapted in different types of birds to deal with different ways of getting around. ”